The pain, also known as dysmenorrhea or period pains, ranges from dull and annoying to severe and extreme. Menstrual cramps tend to begin after ovulation when an egg is released from the ovaries and travels down the fallopian tube.
Pain occurs in the lower abdomen and lower back. It usually begins 1 to 2 days before menstruation and lasts from 2 to 4 days.
Pain that is only associated with the process of menstruation is known as primary dysmenorrhea.
If the cramping pain is due to an identifiable medical problem such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, or pelvic inflammatory disease, it is called secondary dysmenorrhea.
Fast facts on menstrual cramps
Here are some key points about menstrual cramps. More detail is in the main article.
- Menstrual cramps are pains felt in the lower abdomen, before and during menstruation.
- The pain can range from slight to severe.
- Emotional stress can increase the chance of experiencing menstrual cramps.
- Other symptoms include nausea, vomiting, sweating, dizziness, headaches, and diarrhea.
- Menstrual cramps can be treated with over-the-counter medicine, birth control treatments, and some home remedies.
Menstrual cramps usually refer to a dull, throbbing, cramping pain in the lower abdomen, just above the pelvic bone.
Other symptoms may include:
- pain in the lower back and thighs
- nausea and vomiting
- faintness and dizziness
- diarrhea or loose stools
Approximately once every 28 days, if there is no sperm to fertilize the egg, the uterus contracts to expel its lining.
Hormone-like substances called prostaglandins trigger this process.
Prostaglandins are chemicals that form in the lining of the uterus during menstruation. They cause muscle contractions and cramps that are similar to labor pains. They can also contribute to nausea and diarrhea.
The contractions inhibit the blood flow to the lining of the uterus, or endometrium. It may also happen because there are high levels of leukotrienes during menstruation.
Over-the-counter medication is available to treat most cases of menstrual cramps.
Anti-prostaglandins reduce cramping in the uterus, lighten the flow of blood, and relieve discomfort.
These medications may also contain pain killers, such as ibuprofen or naproxen. These are types of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
NSAIDs are also used alone to reduce menstrual cramp pain.
Some non-medical options that may provide relief are:
- soaking in a hot bath
- applying heat, for example, a hot water bottle, to the lower abdomen.
- transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)
Do not sleep with a heated pad as it could cause burns. before purchasing a TENS unit, compare brands and product reviews.
Researchers at Imperial College London found that ingredients in chamomile tea may help relieve menstrual pains by relaxing the uterus. Compare different brands online.
In another study, Chinese herbal medicines were found to help reduce menstrual cramps, but the authors called for more research.
Some dietary options, including herbs and vitamin supplements, may help. Some examples are lavender, fennel, and pycnogenol. These have very little risk.
One study suggests that ginger powder may help if taken during the first 3 to 4 days of the menstrual cycle. Ginger poweder is available to purchase online.
If you choose to use any herbal or supplement approaches, be cautious. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate herbs and supplements for quality or purity.
Getting enough rest and sleep and regular exercise may help.